Firstly, I just wanted to see how many acronyms I could put on a page. Second, as a new pilot on FSx-MP this page is a VALUABLE resource into your pilotage both real world and simulator. The resources on this page link directly to the FAA and are the same standards that student pilots follow.
The Federal Aviation Regulations, generally abbreviated as FAR, are a legal code that US pilots must follow this is also known as Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations. At FSx-MP we use these as our standard for pilots. There are 2 parts that are commonly referenced, that pilots should have a though understanding of. In addition to these 2 sections that I'll be going into, almost any question you have about aviation can be answered in 14 CFR in terms of regulation.
14 CFR part 61
14 CFR Part 61 of the FARs relate to the certification of Pilots and Instructors. Generally these are hard to apply to flight sims and while at FSx-MP we don't have a pilot certification program. This is a great tool to understand exactly what is required in the real world for you to become a pilot(or instructor) and what you can generally expect. Also in this section you'll find restrictions on the various licenses.
14 CFR Part 91
14 CFR Part 91 is a laundry list of general operating practices. This is where VFR and IFR are defined as well as airspace classes. This section of the FARs directly relate to FSx-MP. Give it a good read and make sure that this section is handy when you get into arguments over airspace.
The Aviation Information Manual, or AIM, is a document published yearly to all airmen and specifies best practices in an easy to read format. An important thing to remember about the AIM is that it is NOT regulation. This means that nothing in the AIM sets a legal requirement, however, the information in it is based on the FARs, ACs and best practices among pilots.
Advisory Circulars, often abbreviated ACs are published by the FAA provide guidance to the FARs where confusion exists. While ACs are not regulatory in nature, they do provide a way of assuring compliance. They also show up on PTS.
Practical Test Standards or PTS are publications provided by the FAA for pilots getting ready to take a certification test. These standards outline everything to expect on the certification exam.